The pieces should he securely tied or taped together. Enough air usually will be blown through an aboveground shelter if sufficiently large openings are provided on opposite sides and if there is any breeze. Stick-Frame KAP to Keep Temperatures Endurable for Occupants of a Car- Over-Trench Shelter in Warm Weather. Thanks to Congressman Ike Skelton, Democrat of Missouri and strong civil defense advocate, in 1981 I was able to demonstrate Directional Fanning to Louis Giuffrida, at that time the Director of FEMA. You’re walked through the process, how the storm shelter works, and things you may need to store inside of the shelter in case of an emergency. Then count 1, 2, 3 while you: 1) Quickly raise the fan to a vertical position close in front of your face and immediately fan (push) a slug of air into the opening - ending the power stroke with your arms fully extended and with the fan almost horizontal and out of the way of air that was "sucked" behind the fan and is still flowing out through the opening. Smooth the concrete on top of the storm shelter with a steel float. The shelter must be adequately anchored to resist overturning and uplift. During a worsening nuclear crisis most unprepared citizens probably will not have the time and/or materials needed to make a KAP or other efficient shelter-ventilating pump - even if they have the instructions. In 1980, Dr. William Olsen, a NASA research engineer long concerned with improving self- help civil defense, rediscovered one kind of Directional Fanning. ° Move the air gently, so as not to raise its temperature. A pair of Directional Fanners get ready to make a power stroke by leaning in the upwind direction, as illustrated. If you wait until the storm is upon you, you will be exposed to wind, hail, rain, lightning and maybe even flying debris as you try to get to your shelter. Nor would these most dangerous '"hot" fallout particles be "sucked" into gooseneck air-intake pipes, or other properly designed air-intake openings of a permanent shelter. In this test 5 fanners, each with a fan of approximately the size illustrated, forced air from the outdoors through a 395-foot section between two opened entrances of a typical Chinese tunnel-shelter. A fan with its blade made of two sheets of very heavy cardboard tied on both sides of a 1 x 2-inch board is decidedly effective when dry. 1/8th in.) Its taking 1 step at a time and releasing the thought of finishing whatever it may be you want to work towards. 1 called it a Punkah-Pump, because its hand- pulled operation is somewhat like that of an ancient fan called a 'punkah", still used by some primitive peoples in hot countries. Two persons preparing to use a Bedsheet Fan see sketch) should stand facing each other, at right angles to the desired direction of air flow', with the cloth extended horizontally between them. Numerous shelter occupancy tests have proved that modern Americans can live for weeks in an adequately cooled shelter with only 10 square feet of floor space per person.13Other tests, such as one conducted by the Navy near Washington, D.C. during an abnormally cool two weeks in August, 1962, have shown that conditions can become difficult even when summertime outdoor air is being pumped through a long-occupied shelter at the rate of 12 cubic feet per minute, per person.14,15This is four times the minimum ventilation rate for each occupant specified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for American shelters: 3 cubic feet per minute (3 cfm). (If the air-exhaust opening of your small shelter is much larger than that shown in the sketches, block part of it off to reduce it to approximately this 24-inch-high by 20-inch-wide size, for more effective use with this fan.) Fortunately, even in many expedient shelters completed in a few days, filtered air can be provided by using a homemade KAP to pump air through furnace or air-conditioner filters, as described in the last section of Appendix B. In extremely hot weather, this means 4 quarts of water per day per person and 1 tablespoon (10 grams) of salt, including the salt in food. 17: Permanent Family Fallout Shelters for Dual Use, App. (A dark-colored particle 40 microns in diameter is about as small a speck as most people can see with the naked eye.) The 5 excellent Chinese fans each had a blade made of a piece of 3 mm (approx. An official website of the United States government. Keep important financial and personal documents in one place, such as an accordion folder. Your filtration and circulation should have backup power, and some nicer setups offer manpower emergency temporary options. Register your storm shelter. B. DIRECTIONAL FANNING TO LARGER SHELTERS VENTILATE AND COOL LARGER SHELTERS, To ventilate larger basements, big covered trenches, and other large shelters lacking adequate ventilation, use one or more large 1-man fans. Note that this high- protection-factor, covered-trench shelter depends on air flowing down through its "Dust Filter with Straw Packing (hay)" and out through its small "Exhaust Duct with Damper.". few days to fall from the cloud of a one-megaton explosion down far enough into the troposphere to be occasionally scavenged and promptly brought to earth by rain or snow while still very radioactive. All 20 of these shelters have dangerously inadequate natural ventilation, and none of them have air pumps. 6.5, except that each lacked a trapdoor and filter. Individuals considering purchasing or installing a safe room should contact their local building official about building code requirements but should bear in mind that the extreme loads generated by tornadoes are not covered under model building code requirements. An ordinary thermometer does not measure effective temperature. All the debri that would fall on top of the storm shelter will instead fall on top of the car and fall off the sides. It indicates that four or more inches of snow are expected within the next 12 hours or six or more inches of snow within the next 24 hours with wind gusts of up to 35 miles per hour. However, if most shelters are fully occupied for a few days without adequate ventilation, the floors, walls, and ceilings, originally cool, will have absorbed about all the body heat of which they are capable. Make the pendulum-like return stroke with the fan blade kept edgewise )" feathered") to the air flow until the end, when you quickly turn it 90 degrees, preparatory.' The connections between all parts of the shelter must be strong enough to resist the wind. The air pump instructions given in Appendix B are the result of having scores of families and pairs of untrained individuals, including children, build and use this air pump. Two men thus fanning vigorously produced a net air flow of 5,500 cubic feet per minute through an empty school corridor that is 8 feet wide, has a 9- foot ceiling, and is 194 feet long. Dec 31, 2014 - DIY Tutorial - How to Build an In-house Emergency Storm Shelter... very detailed photo's and tutorial. Any one of the six occupants could pull this cord and easily pump as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of outdoor air through the shelter and through the insect screens over both its entrances. Behind the girl is the homemade air pump that made it possible for a family of six to live in a crowded trench shelter for more than three days. All products must be properly installed for their intended use(s) only. Since then, with the assistance of able Americans and others, I have designed and tested several types of Directional Fans. When you’re planning the size, keep in mind the available space, the number of people you expect to protect, the secondary purpose the room will serve and your budget. ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. These tests confirmed findings first made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the advantages of the KAP both as a manually operated pump for forcing large volumes of outdoor air through shelters and as a device for distributing air within shelters and fanning the occupants. ", WARNING: MANY OFFICIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING AND VENTILATING SHELTERS ARE LIFE-ENDANGERING. In the Navy test, the ventilation rate of 7 to 12 cfm was not high enough to give occupants the partial relief from heat and sweating that people normally get at night.15 In a National Academy of Sciences meeting on protective shelters, an authority stated: "Laboratory experiments and field investigations have shown that healthy persons at rest can tolerate daily exposures to ETs [effective temperatures] up to 900 F, provided they can get a good night's sleep in a cooler environment. Recommendations such as those above realistically face the fact that, if we suffer a nuclear attack, the vast majority of Americans will have only the fallout protection given by buildings and some expedient shelters. The resultant large clouds of extremely small radioactive particles in the troposphere usually would be blown eastward, and resultant life-endangering "hot spots" from rain-outs and/or snow-outs could be scattered clear to the Atlantic coast. Ventilation is another design element you shouldn’t overlook. If high-protection-factor shelters or most other shelters that lack adequate forced ventilation were fully occupied for several days in warm or hot weather, they would become so hot and humid that the occupants would collapse from the heat if they were to remain inside. It's a win situation all round, and the combination of which will keep you that much safer for the remainder of the day. If it is windy outside, even some sand-like fallout particles may be blown into a shelter with large ventilation openings. This manual air pump, described in Appendix B, can force large volumes of air through low- resistance openings with minimum effort. Can I take the shelter with me if I move? Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.. A safe room is a hardened structure specifically designed to meet the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) criteria and provide near-absolute protection in extreme weather events, including tornadoes and hurricanes. This publication has all of the details you will need on how to build your own tornado shelter in your area. In the 1960s when the threat of nuclear annihilation was a real fear, many people built a fallout shelter to protect their families from radiation poisoning. Scavenging is most effective below about 30,000 feet, the maximum height of most rain and snow clouds. The Navy test mentioned above showed how much modern Americans who are accustomed to air conditioning could learn from jungle natives about keeping cool and healthy by skillfully using hot, humid, outdoor air. DIRECTIONAL FANNING TO VENTILATE SHELTERS. ° Headaches, collapse, or death due to carbon monoxide from open fires or gasoline lanterns that release gases into the shelter air. To cover the fan's blade, any strong, light fabric, such as bedsheet cloth, serves well If you are going to sew on the cloth, first cuts 26 x 30-inch piece. ), During the 77 hours that the family continuously occupied their narrow, covered trench, the temperatures outside rose as high as 930 F. Without the air pump, the six occupants would have been driven from their shelter by unbearable temperature- humidity conditions during the day.8, The photo in Fig. 2), 3) After a slight pause, leisurely withdraw the almost horizontal fan until the bottom of its blade almost touches your stomach -- preparatory to the next power stroke. When an attack is expected, a shelter, occupied or soon to be occupied, should be kept as cool as practical by pumping large volumes of outdoor air through it when the outdoor air is cooler than the shelter air. Simple means for preventing skin diseases and infections-means proved very effective by jungle natives and by our best trained jungle infantrymen in World War II - are described in the Prevention of Skin Diseases section of Chapter 12. It is structurally built to bear wind loads in excess of 250 mph or an EF5 tornado. Read hazard mitigation best practices for examples of mitigation in action. We have the top 5 shelter items you need to have.. What to put in a storm shelter. In a trench shelter, where air is pumped in at one end and flows out the other, good distribution is assured.In larger shelters, such as basements, ventilating air will move from the air-supply opening straight to the air exhaust opening. Size of the Storm Shelter. Now, we will give you some tips for storm shelter storage ideas. 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